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Cham Tradition & Culture

While today the Cham are Vietnam’s only surviving Hindus, the nation once harbored some of the world’s most exquisite and vibrant Hindu cultures. The entire region of Southeast Asia, in fact, was home to numerous Hindu kingdoms. The many magnificient temples and artifacts, from Angkor Wat to Prambana, remain as potent testimonials to their splendor and accomplishments. These grand edifices still stand, though the societies around them no longer worship there or practice the lost traditions.

Champa was a formidible Hindu kingdom, renowned for its immense wealth and sophisticated culture. Its major port was Katti­gara. Nearly 2,000 years ago, Claudius Ptolemy wrote of Cattigara and outlined it on his map of the world. Modern scholarship has confirmed Cattigara as the forerunner of Saigon (modern day Ho Chi Minh City). Cattigara was, in fact, the main port at the mouth of the Mekong River, a name derived from Mae Nam Khong, the Mother Water Ganga.

S. Swaminathan, author of a blog called Ancient Sanskrit Inscriptions in Strange Places, wrote, “The first Cham king that history knows is Sri Maran, identified as a Tamil ruler. The fact that a Pandyan king ruled Vietnam was missed by many historians. Translated into Tamil it is Thiru Maran. Several Pandyan kings by these names are spoken of in inscriptions and Tamil sangam literature. The oldest Sanksrit inscription discovered in Vietnam mentions the name of Sri Maran. The inscription is known as the Vo-Canch inscription.”

Another early Champa king was Bhadravarman, who ruled from 349-361CE. His capital was the citadel of Simhapura or ‘Lion City,’ now called Tra Kieu. Badravarman built a number of temples, conquered his rivals, ruled well and in his final years abdicated his throne and spent his last days in India on the banks of the Ganges River. Historic Champa was divided into five regions. Indrapura (present-day Dong Duong) served as the religious center of the kingdom; Amaravati is the present day Quong Nam province; Vijya is now Cha Ban; Kauthara is the modern Nha Trang; and Panduranga is known today simply as Phan. Panduranga was the last Cham territory to be conquered by the Sino-Vietnamese.

Few know that Christopher Columbus, on his fourth and last voyage, had attempted to reach the Champa Kingdom and actually believed he had reached Vietnam. In ancient days well-worn trade routes had linked Europe with India and the entire region of South and Southeast Asia, and for countless centuries the wealth and wisdom of India had flowed to the markets and institutions of the world. By the 1400s, however, political instability had disrupted direct trade links with India and the West. Columbus was convinced that by sailing west from Spain he could circle the globe—a concept ridiculed by most Europeans, who still believed the Earth was flat—and thus find a new trade route and reestablish the long-lost link to the wealth of the East. His planned route would take him south along the Vietnamese coast, past the Cape of Kattigara and on to Malacca; he believed this to be the route Marco Polo had followed from China to India in 1292. Reaching Cariay on the coast of Costa Rica, he thought he had found Vietnam and was very close to one of his coveted destinations, the famous gold mines of the Champa Kingdom. Fortunately for Vietnam, he was mistaken.

Another Vietnamese Hindu kingdom was Funan, which flourished between the 1st and 6th centuries ce. Its capital was the Oc Eo Citadel. While exploring sea passages to India in the year 250 ce, two Chinese envoys, Kang Dai and Zhu Ying, described Funan as “having its own taxation system, ruled by a king in a walled palace.” Professor Louis Malleret has unearthed much evidence of significant seaborne trade between Oc Eo, Persia and Rome.

The Art of Champa

Even more than its history, Champa art is understudied and has little exposure in the Western world.  This is primarily due to the complete loss of the Champa Kingdom when it was conquered by the Vietnamese.  Moreover, Vietnam went through many years of wars and political turmoil until it finally fell to the Northern Communist regime, which resulted in the destruction of many Cham temples and contributed to the lack of interest in the lost Kingdom of Champa. In the introduction to The Art of Champa, Jean Francois Hubert wrote “Evoking Champa means glorifying death, sanctifying remnants, magnifying clues, singing the praises of mourning, and reconstructing of history.”  Champa only exists now in museums and glorified temple ruins across Hue in central Vietnam to Da Nang to Binh Thuan near Saigon.  The remaining stone statues, steles and metal objects are few even in the museums of Vietnam, fewer still in museums of America, France, Belgium, Germany, and Singapore. However, in the past few years more Champa art objects of bronze, silver and gold have found their way into the public eye.  A large number of these never seen before objects can be found at the Dr. Zelnik Southeast Asian Gold Museum in Budapest, Hungary.   These objects are just now revealing an astonish look into the lost culture of a dead kingdom. Hubert wrote “What pleasure! What stimulation! What topics for study and reflection! Dr. Zelnik’s collection of Cham gold pieces presented notably in a first and now this second volume of a series destined to include several is an exceptional gathering of objects that pose more questions than they offer answers….Bring us to refer not the influence of Khmer art on Cham art but of Cham art on Khmer art, facts on which serious works must be done in the years to come


Many Hindu artifacts of significant historical value have been found in Vietnam. In 2001, 320 gold plaques were discovered. Decorated with various Hindu divinities, such as Garuda, Narasimha, Kurma and Durga, these plaques have been identified as the earliest known Hindu iconographic images ever discovered in Southeast Asia.

Starting in the 1940s, many valuable Oc Eo artifacts have been unearthed, featuring statues and reliefs of Buddha, Ganesh, Vishnu, Durga and Siva in both His human and aniconic Linga form.

Many Vietnamese Hindu artifacts have been misidentified as Buddhist icons. One such example is the Bien Hoa Vishnu, which bears all the markings of Vishnu and is identified as such by the Sanskrit inscriptions on its back. This sculpture, dated to 100 CE, was commissioned by Prince Vijaya Klaun Nauk Champa in gratitude and as a symbol of Vishnu’s blessings for his conquests over the Chenla. Lost for centuries and rediscovered 100 years ago, the Bien Hoa Vishnu has been worshiped ever since as Buddha by the local community.

In June, 2013, Vietnam’s prime minister officially identified 30 National Treasures of Integral Import to the Nation. Among these are several Hindu artifacts, including murtis of Vishnu and Surya from the Oc Eo culture and of Durga and Siva from the Champa. The 5th Quang Nam Heritage Festival, held June 21, 2013, featured a Vishnu sculpture dated 3,500 to 4,000 years ago. If this dating proves accurate, this sculpture would be the oldest known identifiably Hindu artifact in the world.

Language and Script

The Vo-Canh inscription, among the oldest known Sanskrit inscriptions discovered in the region, is one of many discovered in modern times. The Da Rang River, the largest river valley in central Vietnam, boasts several such Sanskrit inscriptions, including one at its mouth. These riverside inscriptions often lay hidden beneath the waterline, only to be revealed during the dry summer months.

The Cham script is a descendent of the South Indian Brahmic Grantha script. Many Hindu stone temples of the Champa include both Sanskrit and Chamic stone carvings. The various Cham communities use slightly modified versions of the script, although the Cham Muslims prefer to use the Arabic alphabet. During French colonial rule, both groups were forced to use the Latin script. Though the Cham script is still highly valued, and despite efforts to simplify the spelling, today few people are actually learning it.

While the Brahmic-based Cham language is still spoken by nearly 250,000 people, at one time Sanskrit was common for the educated. Interestingly, the spread of written Sanskrit in India seems to have nearly coincided with its use in Vietnam and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. The evidence speaks of an ongoing vibrant Sanskrit-based Hindu civilization that was never handicapped by narrow ethnic or national limitations but rather was nearly global in scope.


For Vietnamese, wedding is one of three most important things to do all one’s life. Thank to the diversity in culture of 54 different ethnic minority groups inhabiting Vietnam, wedding ceremonies are also held differently in different ethnic groups and Cham people, is one of 54 Vietnam ethnic groups, has wedding ceremonies held in a special way. When the final day of the Ramadan festival ends (in mid-October), you will see only women, men and children on the paths of a Cham village in An Giang. Cham girls aged 12 and 13 are kept at home. Gusts of autumn wind and the rain in this province on the southeast border bring me a torrent of indescribable emotion. Laughter and congratulations echo from somewhere, giving notice that the wedding season has arrived.

The Cham people in An Giang live mainly in Tan Chau, Phu Tan and An Phu districts in Chau Doc city, along the banks of the Chau Giang river, the second biggest town at the headwaters of the Hau river. The Cham people live and work under the creed of Islam, which is best shown in their wedding customs. Strangers are very rarely invited to a Cham wedding. But I am a friend of a Chairwoman of the Womens Association in Chau Phong commune of Tan Chau district, so I was invited to attend the wedding of her relative. This was the first time I had attended a wedding of the Cham people and I was the only Kinh person at the wedding. A wedding of the Cham people in An Giang lasts for three days. The bride and groom decorate their house on the first day. The rituals to prepare the groom and the bride to enter family life are held on the second day. The third day is the most important. The wedding is held in the mosque and the groom goes to the bride’s house.

Rituals for the groom in the mosque

The tea party and singing performances last until 1 a.m., and in the early morning all the people in the groom’s party are present to attend the ceremony. At 6 a.m., everyone, all dressed in formal costume, accompany the groom in traditional Cham costume to the mosque. There are only men (women are not allowed in the mosque) and three children carrying three boxes. In the boxes are betel, areca and lime in the first box, rice and salt in the second box, cakes and fruit in the third box. The groom is shaded from the sun with a colorful parasol over his head. Villagers rush to attend the ceremony and noisily discuss it. The groom is taken to the mosque on foot, not by motorbike or by car.

On the way to the mosque, flutes or drums are played and people sing together. On arrival at the mosque the groom sits opposite to the bride’s father. There are two elders, who lead a very moral life, who witness the ceremony. An imam reads from the Koran, telling the groom about the responsibilities of a husband under Islamic regulations. Then the bride’s father shakes the groom’s hand and says: “I marry my daughter, Mahriem to you, Sarol, with I tael of gold and 5 million”. After that everyone prays for the good health and happiness of the couple. The ceremony lasts for only about 15 minutes in the mosque.

Taking the groom to the bride’s house

The Cham people in An Giang follow matriarchal customs, so they take the groom to the bride’s house, instead of taking the bride to the groom’s house as the Kinh people do. From the mosque, the groom is taken to the bride’s house. Here everyone stands on the ground, then one person of the bride’s family comes to take the groom to the bride’s room.

The wedding room is beautifully decorated. There are three children holding three boxes in their hands who accompany the groom. The bride is beautifully made up and dressed in traditional costume. She sits on the bed, waiting for the groom. On entering the room, the groom sits next to the bride and places three boxes in front of her. Frankincense is burnt. The women and girls in the bride’s family pray for happiness for the newlyweds.

At this time, the groom takes one of three long haipins from the bride’s hair then puts them in her hand. This shows that the bride is now his wife. Then the groom changes into dress provided by the bride and comes out of the room to greet the bride’s family. After that, they return to the groom’s family. The bride goes with an aunt of the groom’s family to greet the relatives (the aunt come to the bride’s family before the groom gets there).

After taking the groom to the bride’s family, the groom and the groom’s family return home.

By this time, the guests are all present. The mother greets the female guests and the father greets the male guests. The guests will a sum of money to share the happiness with their family. Then everyone prays and enjoys the feast. The menu of the feast includes rice, beef and sour vegetables (onion, pickled scallion heads, ginger, red cabbage and white cabbage) and salted lemon with pepper, which is the traditional food of the Cham people who follow Islam. According to Islamic regulations, the Cham people are not allowed to drink wine. Their feast is very simple and finishes quickly, unlike the wedding feast of the Kinh people.

That evening, four female elders of the groom’s family take the groom to the bride’s house. The wedding night is spent here and is the final stage in a Cham wedding. After three days, the groom’s family brings many useful things to the newlyweds for their life together. On the next night, two women in the bride’s family go with the newlyweds to visit the groom’s parents. The parents give the bride money and jewelry. The bride’s parents also give money or jewelry, like the groom’s family. Then their life together as a married couple begins.

Vast Temple Complexes

In ancient times the Champa built vast temple complexes that remain standing to this day. Primarily dedicated to Lord Siva, these structures honor Lord Siva as the founder and protector of the Champa Dynasty. The most important of these is known as My Son, a Hindu religious and literary center. Originally, this temple complex featured 70 structures, of which 25 survive. Sadly, the main tower was severely damaged by American bombers in 1969 during the Vietnam War.

The Sivalinga was the primary form worshiped at My Son, its aniconic form also representing the divine authority of the Siva-empowered king. Today the Cham people continue to worship this form of Lord Siva.

The site of the ancient Son Tien Tu pagoda, atop Mt. Ba, is still considered to be one of the most spiritual and sacred places in all of Vietnam. There, on a three-meter-high granite rock, is the ban chan tien, a footprint belonging to a God who “set his footstep on soft land at the dawn of humankind.” Located nearby is the recently opened Archaeology Museum of the Oc Eo Culture, designed to replicate a large Sivalingam and yoni. Its walls are lined with seated Ganesh murtis.

The Cham People Today

Today the Cham are spread throughout East Asia. They are predominantly Sunni Muslim in Cambodia, Shia Islam in China, and Buddhist in Thailand. A small number of the Vietnamese Cham (also known as the Eastern Cham) follow Islam and a relative few follow Mahayana Buddhism, but the majority are Hindu. These are called the Balamon (Brahman) people. It is claimed that 70% of the Balamon people are classed as kshatriyas.

Having survived the loss of their kingdom, the colonial tyranny of the French, the Vietnam War (during which an unknown number emigrated to France), Communist rule and economic mayhem, the Cham Balamon people and traditions are surprisingly intact. Their temples are still standing. Their festivals are still celebrated and the traditional Hindu ceremonies and worship continue. Life’s passages, such as graduations, weddings, births and deaths, are still observed in accordance with the Hindu traditions. Along with the Balinese Hindus, the Cham Balamon represent the only remaining non-Indic populations of indigenous Hindus surviving today.

But the Cham are not immune to the problems of modern times. The young are focused on material well-being, with little time or commitment to ancestral ways. Although there are a few courageous efforts to protect and promote the rich traditions of Cham Hinduism, there is a long way to go.

The Cham Muslim community has been more successful in this respect. Strong cultural and financial ties have been developed between the Cham Muslims, as motivated Islamic preachers travel among the Cham, inspiring faith, activism, unity and common cause between the Cham Muslims and the Umma, the overall global Islamic community.

Interview with Cham Elders

During my exploration of Vietnam’s persistent Hindu culture, I was fortunate to connect with Phu Trim. His nom-de-plume is Inrasara, rooted in the name of Indra the King of the Celestials. Inrasara is a Cham Balamon leader, scholar, author and elder. He has written many books and is a recognized expert on Cham culture. I also was assisted by Jaka, another Cham scholar and leader, and by his son Inrajaya, whose photographs accompany this article. My interview with them sheds light on their culture and people.

— • What is the origin of the Balamon people? The research has not come to a clear conclusion yet. Now it is said that we come from somewhere in Java. It is known that we built our culture from 3,000 to 5,000 years ago in our land.

— • Tell us about the Balamon religion. It is hard to decide if Balamon is a religion or just a system of beliefs. Though our ancestors have left us with the Hindu sculptures, yet history might have burned down all the textbooks. We have now only books or texts to show beliefs, stories of the kings, God and the performing of rituals.

— • What is your most important festival? It could be said it is our New Year, called Rija Nagar, or “the nation’s festival.” It is most important since it has common value and is celebrated by Ahier (Hindus) and Awal (Muslims), together with its very beautiful and philosophical dances.

— • Are the Balamon traditions and culture popular among the young people? Since there is no clear belief system, we can say that it is not popular, though the lifestyle, by which I mean artistic, joyful and spiritual, is seen as popular.

— • What connections do your people have with India, past and present? Our kingdom at its very early stage, 192 CE, adopted Hinduism as its religion and had the trading connection ever since. But about a thousand years later, as the merchants stopped coming to Southeast Asia, its influence fell, replaced by the growing power of Islam. The Indian researchers and friends who have come to Phanrang to see the culture have said much Indian influence can still be seen today, especially in some of the beliefs and the Hindu temples.

— • Do people still worship at the ancient Hindu temples? Yes, we have four temples that are still worshiped in nowadays: Po Inu Nugar, Po Rome, Po Klaung Girai and Po Dam. As for My Son heritage, we have lost our land and so have not reached there since long ago, but that is still the holy ground that people would love to visit.

— • What are the biggest challenges facing the Cham people? Keeping our culture, language and traditions alive is generally the challenge from hundreds years ago, as the influence from Vietnam grows greater. Now not many young people know how to read or speak properly, or clearly understand our beliefs.

— • What are the most treasured artifacts of the Cham? The temples, or the small wooden frame kept by the three highest priests that represent the temples, are the most important. They are used when we need to perform rituals while we cannot reach the temples because of warfare.

— • Are there any official efforts to protect and promote Cham dance, music and art? There are none that officially teach or study Cham history and traditions. Anyway, the need is high since long ago. Now we have the Cham brand of the Vietnam Association of Ethnology, focusing on fostering social activities for Cham in Saigon. Also we have Cham language classes, and the Cham UNESCO formed that focuses on studies. They are reaching out to more and more people, though the impact is still small in scale.

•—  What important projects are you part of in relation to the Cham Balamon people? (Answer from Jaka) I have many personal projects that have brought impact and changes to the community, especially the Cham website to connect young people and share articles on Cham studies at To name a few: teaching Cham language, traditional songs, Cham youth camps, write and perform small Cham-spoken plays.

— • Is the Balamon religion Hinduism? Yes, we can say so.

—•  Who is your favorite God and why? For our forefathers and ourselves it is Siva, the true holy sage, the destroyer of untruths who enlightens all followers.

— • What is the long-term vision for your people? As long as the language and culture are alive rather than vanishing, we shall be able to play a part in building a beautiful and colorful world.